Psychology statistics Academic Essay

Materials (description of scales)

• 10 item scale, 4 distracter items
• 3 items positively worded
• 3 items negatively worded (reverse scored)
o those 6 items combined give LOTtotal
• 5 point likert scale (1 = Disagree a lot 5, = Agree a lot)

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.

HHS (Herth Hope Scale)
• Made up of 3 subscales (HHS1Temporality, HHS2PositiveReadiness, HHS3Interconnectedness)
• 30 items in total
• Temporality and future (10 items)
• Positive readiness and expectancy (10 items)
• Interconnectedness (10 items)
• 4 point likert scale (1 = Never applies to me, 4 = Often applies to me)

Herth, K. (1991). Development and refinement of an instrument to measure hope. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An international Journal, 5, 39-51.

• 20 item true/false scale
• 9 are keyed false (f=1) and 11 keyed true (t=1)
• Higher scores = more true answers selected.

Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865.

• 50 item scale
• 10 items for each subscale (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness)
• 5 point likert scale (1 = Very inaccurate, 5 = Very accurate)

Goldberg, L. R. (2005). International Personality Item Pool: A scientific collaboratory for the development of advanced measures of personality traits and other individual differences. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from the International Personality Item Pool Web site:

Seligman Optimism scale
• 48 items
• 6 subscales (8 items per scale)
• 3 subscales were positive (Temporary, Specific, Externalised)
• 3 subscales were negative (Permanent, Universal, Internalised)
• Positive scales minus the negative scales gives the SeligmanOptimism total score, scores 8 or above reflecting high optimism across the board, 6-8 moderately optimistic, 3-5 average, 1-2 moderately pessimistic, 0 or below very pessimistic.
• Dichotomous response format to different situations

Seligman, M, E, P. (1991). Learned optimism. Random House Australia: Sydney
PDF in Assignment 1 folder.

DAS (Dysfunctional Attitude Scale)
• 24 items
• items summed to create total DAS score
• 7 point likert scale (1 = Totally disagree, 7 = Totally agree)

Power, M. J., Katz, R., McGuffin, P., Duggan, C, F., Lam, D., & Beck, A, T. (1994). The dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS): A comparison of forms A and B and proposals for a new sub scale version. Journal of Research and Personality, 28, 263-276.

Positive Well Being Scales
• PwBa (autonomy)
o 9 items
• PwBem (environmental mastery)
o 9 items
• PwBpg (personal growth)
o 9 items
• PwBpr (positive relations with others)
o 9items
• PwBpl (purpose in life)
o 9 items
• PwBsa (self-acceptance)
o 9 items
• 54 item scale
• 6 point likert scale (1 = Strongly disagree, 6 = Strongly agree)

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727.

Our Optimism Scale
• 30 item pool
• 10 for RO (realistic optimism)
• 10 for UO (unrealistic optimism)
• 10 for P (pessimism)
• 5 point Likert scale (1 = Not at all like me, 5 = A lot like me)

RO = Realistic Optimism, UO = Unrealistic Optimism, P = Pessimism

RO1 When I set goals I usually achieve them
RO2 If I put my mind to it, I can get fit and healthy
RO3 I believe that a good attitude will produce a good outcome
RO4 I think there is a solution to most problems
RO5 I view feedback as useful for my success
RO6 I tend to see challenging situations as opportunities
RO7 When things don’t go my way, I can still maintain a positive outlook
RO8 I believe that my past mistakes will help me succeed in the future
RO9 I know that I cannot succeed in everything I do but I look to do my best
RO10 I work hard to achieve the goals I set for myself

UO1 I know that I will achieve all of my goals in life
UO2 I seldom go to the doctors because I am never sick
UO3 I believe that more good things will happen to me than to others
UO4 Left to themselves my problems seem to work out
UO5 I often plan my victory celebrations before I have completed an endeavour
UO6 I expect the best, no matter what the situation
UO7 If I think positively, good things will happen to me
UO8 I feel that if things don’t work out today then there’s always tomorrow
UO9 I am in control of all aspects of my life
UO10 I believe that my life will work out well, no matter what

P1 My relationships always fail
P2 My failures are beyond my control
P3 I often worry about whether I will achieve my goals
P4 No matter how hard I try, things never work out for me
P5 I often regret past events
P6 I generally anticipate the worst
P7 I tend to feel that I am the one to blame when something goes wrong
P8 If my day starts badly it ends badly
P9 I never expect things to go to plan
P10 I have a tendency to emphasise the adverse aspects of situations

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