We can work on Transmission Electron Microscopy

Part I:
Analysis of Diffraction Patterns of superlattice (5 marks)

You are provided with a sketch, which locates the TEM micrographs and diffraction patterns taken of the ‘stainless steel sample’ during your lab session. (This is information which is typically recorded when carrying out TEM experiments.
• Index at least 2 of the zone axis diffraction patterns (ZAP’s) and determine the zone axis direction (ZAD) for each. (N.B. Assume the material is in fcc structure and index each ZAP and ZAD consistently.
• Plot each ZAD on a Kikuchi map. (You can use a published Kikuchi map or draw your own diagram.)

Part II:
1) Determination of Burgers Vector of Dislocations (5 marks)

• Identify the operating diffraction vector (g) for each of the images of the dislocation array taken under 2-beam diffraction conditions.
• With specific reference to these images, describe the general procedure for determining the Burgers vector (b) of the dislocations.

2) Determination chemical compositions of materials (5 marks)

• Identify the chemical composition from EDX spectrum.
• Check the chemical composition difference from matrix, grain boundary or any possible precipitates, if these were done by your group.

Sample Solution

Thirdly, the migration flows after the new millennium is discussed. The last section, the conclusion, will contain a short summary of the paper. This will include the arguments made earlier to underpin why migration consequences cannot be understood without explaining migration causes. Colonialism & post-colonialism In order to understand some the migration flows around the world, it is necessary to delve into history. Especially, there must be taken into account the colonial and post-colonial history of countries play a large role in the motives of migrants. According to Castle et al., (2014) migration as an escape from poverty and oppressive conditions and a way of seeking new opportunities is an important part of the history of modern societies’ (p. 85). When looking into colonialism, one could argue that this historical event gave rise to different flows of migration (Castle et al., 2014). Not only did European countries take away millions of people from their original homeland, Africa, to use them as slaves in other countries. Also Europeans themselves moved to the colonial countries, for example as sailors, soldiers, farmers and so forth, of which most of them never returned (Castle et al., 2014). This means that already during the colonial times people were settled all over the world, which was either by force or voluntary. In this chapter, an overview will be given of how migration during colonialism and post-colonialism has had an influence on the present day. The United States: slavery and the Jim Crow system It is important to understand that colonialism and especially slavery had been a ‘major source of capital accumulation in the United States, but also in Europe’ (Castle et al, 2014). This is important because this made the industrial revolution possible in the 18th and 19th century, which in turn led to other migration forms. When focusing on the United States, immigration from European countries, such as Italy and Ireland, was major during the industrial take off. To make sure, there were enough jobs for Europeans, the Jim Crow system was invented after the abolition of slavery (Castle et al., 2014). This system of discriminatory laws was meant to keep the Blacks in there place, namely on the Southern plantations, even though they were actual ‘free’ people.>

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