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Discuss how the PLO has remained one of the most influential terror groups of the 20th century.

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academic skills at a slower rate and that the ‘economically disadvantaged’ are more likely to experience cognitive delay (Hillemeier et al, 2009). Furthermore, it was also found that children experiencing cognitive delay are at a higher risk for poor mental health throughout their lives (Hillemeier et al, 2009). Poor mental health could result in an increase in health-related absences, or poorer institutional performance. Sufferers may have issues regarding motivation or a lack of confidence, and this could impact their performance. Thus, in the long term affecting their intelligence. Early estimates of intelligence inheritability were around 70% (Murray & Heinstein, 1994). More recently, it’s been suggested that nature and nurture aren’t two separate entities, and there is instead an interaction between the two. (Makharia et al, 2016) suggested that children in poverty don’t develop to their ‘full genetic potential’ due to the environment they’re presented with, and this could be because genetics are triggered by the surrounding environment. We can infer that this is a consequence of a lack of resources (Hazzouri et al, 2017). This supports the idea that income is a probable explanation for the relationship between SES and intelligence. One’s access to resources is based on their income, if they cannot afford the same materials as their peers, they aren’t presented with an equal opportunity to achieve their full academic ability. Although it is assumed that the parents are the overall breadwinner, some children may have to get a job alongside full-time education to support their parent’s income. This presents a ‘time’ opportunity cost to them. They may have less time to spend studying, which could result in them underperforming in exams. More likely, they may not continue in further education and start working immediately instead (Neyt, Omey, Verhaest & Baert, 2017). For example, a school-leaver may be intelligent enough to continue to university, however they may not be able to afford to go. Neisser et al (1996)found that attending school/university increases your IQ. If you don’t have the opportunity to attend further education due to a lack of resources, you don’t have the opportunity to develop intelligence to the same extent as others in society. Consequently, this means that those in lower socioeconomic conditions are less intelligent as a direct result of low income. Low income can also result in parents not providing their children with the adequate experiences needed for children to reach their full potential. The neuroplasticity of the brain allows it to develop based on experience (Jensen, 2009), if children aren’t given the same opportunities as their wealthier peers they are unlikely to achieve their full potential. Another way that low income can indirectly influence intelligence, is through the stress imposed with it. Research has found that the stress of low income is associated with glands in the brain that’re also associated with cognition (Hazzouri et al, 2017). Arguably, living in a poor condition is more stressful than being in a comfortable one. In the long term, this can have damaging effects on cognitive function. Thus, the hindered cognitive functioning results in individuals not performing to full potential. Although the stress associated with low income is likely to weigh heavy on the parents within a family, children are arguably just as exposed to this emotion. Consequently, they may also feel the pressure of any issues related to low income. Their cognition could fall victim to the stress, resulting in an inability to achieve their full academic prospect.>

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