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Coffee Consumption and Cardio-Vascular Diseases There has always been a controversy about coffee consumption. While many say it causes various cardiovascular problems others say that coffee is actually beneficial for the health. Lang et al. (1983) showed that there was blood pressure (BP) increase from 125.6/79.8 +/- 15.0/10.5 mm Hg in non-coffee consumption category to 128.1/80.6 +/- 15.6/10.2 mm Hg in the highest consumption category (greater than or equal to 5 cups/day). They concluded that coffee was a significant contributor to the variation in BP levels. Riksen, Rongen and Smits (2008) in their work “Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: Implications for coronary heart disease” indicated that “both experimental studies and epidemiological studies favor a deleterious role of coffee consumption as a trigger for coronary events, rather than in promoting the development of atherosclerosis” (p.189). Revuelta-Iniesta and Al-Dujaili (2008) studied biochemical aspects of green and black coffee and proposed that coffee intake, especially green coffee, might play a role in the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and perhaps cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) in the long term. In the same 2008 year Geleijnse conducted a metanalysis of multiple studies and came to conclusion that regular coffee intake does not increase the risk of hypertension. Some may argue that even though coffee consumption is considered safe for healthy individuals, it still may be harmful if consumed by people who already suffer from CVD. But recent work by Chrysant (2017) demonstrated that coffee consumption has either neutral or beneficial effects on BP, CVD, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Changes in approach to one of the most popular beverages explained by different types of coffee that was studied. If years ago people drunk mainly boiled coffee, nowadays we prefer filtered coffee. According to O’Keefe et al. (2013) filtered coffee contains less amounts of cafestol and kahweol, substances which increase serum cholesterol. This supports previously mentioned conclusion of Riksen et al. (2008), that coffee consumption does not promote the development of atherosclerosis. In fact, to O’Keefe et al. (2013) indicated in the same work that coffee intake is beneficial in reduction of DM type two and may reduce the risk of stroke. Also, regular coffee intake does not cause increase in BP, although in non-habitual drinkers temporary BP increase is noticed. In conclusion, contrary to older studies coffee consumption considered not harmful and even beneficial, in some cases, nowadays. One of the explanations for this is the way coffee brewed. It may be concluded that filtered coffee is healthier than boiled coffee. Accidental consumption of this beverage by people who already suffer from chronic CVD is not recommended, whereas habitual drinkers can consume coffee regardless of their CVD status. References:Chrysant, S. G. (2017). The impact of coffee consumption on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 15(3), 151–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2017.1287563Geleijnse, J. M. (2008). Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: an epidemiological perspective. Vascular Health Risk Manag, 4, 963–970. https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S3055 Lang T., Degoulet P., Aime F., Fouriaud C., Jacquinet-Salord M.C., Laprugne J., Main J., Oeconomos J., Phalente J., Prades A. (1983). Relation between coffee drinking and blood pressure: Analysis of 6,321 subjects in the Paris region. The American Journal of Cardiology, 52(12), 1238-1242O’Keefe, J. H., Bhatti, S. K., Patil, H. R., DiNicolantonio, J. J., Lucan, S. C., & Lavie, C. J. (2013). Effects of Habitual Coffee Consumption on Cardiometabolic Disease, Cardiovascular Health, and All-Cause Mortality. Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), 62(12), 1043–1051. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.06.035Revuelta-Iniesta R.and Al-Dujaili E.A.S. (2014). Consumption of Green Coffee Reduces Blood Pressure and Body Composition by Influencing 11b-HSD1 Enzyme Activity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Crossover Study Using Green and Black Coffee. ?BioMed Research International, 2014, 1-9. Riksen, N. P., Rongen, G. A., & Smits, P. (2009). Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: Implications for coronary heart disease. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 121(2), 185–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.10.006Purchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view it
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