We can work on Term Paper 3000 words on Security, Privacy and societal implications of using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education

 The use of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) in education provides better student engagement and a fascinating learn by doing instructions It also helps educational institutions in students recruitment and retention. However, using VR/AR may not be always advantageous. For instance, VR and AR technologies can collect far more personal information than traditionalRead more about We can work on Term Paper 3000 words on Security, Privacy and societal implications of using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education[…]

We can work on Term Paper 3000 words on Security, Privacy and societal implications of using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education

 The use of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) in education provides better student engagement and a fascinating learn by doing instructions It also helps educational institutions in students recruitment and retention. However, using VR/AR may not be always advantageous. For instance, VR and AR technologies can collect far more personal information than traditionalRead more about We can work on Term Paper 3000 words on Security, Privacy and societal implications of using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education[…]

We can work on Los Angeles Valley College Russell s Appearance to Reality Questions – Assignment Help

Answer these nine questions about Russell’s Appearance to Reality: Here is the link to the reading http://www.ditext.com/russell/rus1.html 1. What are two of the things we believe in our daily lives that can be doubted (according to what Russell says in the second paragraph)? 2. What reason does Russell give for doubting that we know theRead more about We can work on Los Angeles Valley College Russell s Appearance to Reality Questions – Assignment Help[…]

We can work on UArizona Global Campus Change Theory Meets Change Reality Discussion Questions – Assignment Help

Discussion 1: Change Theory Meets Change Reality Applying research and evidence-based knowledge about change enhances the ability to effectively advocate for change that improves the teaching and learning of diverse learners and students with exceptionalities. In addition to your exploration of transformational and authentic leadership in the previous module, consider the readings and media onRead more about We can work on UArizona Global Campus Change Theory Meets Change Reality Discussion Questions – Assignment Help[…]

We can work on Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Name Institution Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a country that has been in the international limelight for stretchered periods of time in the recent past, with respect to reports of human rights violations. Advanced democracies of the world seem to take a keen interest in the human rights issues in Saudi Arabia. This paper is an assessment of the extent to which international media based in democracies cover human rights violations in Saudi Arabia, focusing solely on 2019 coverage. The paper will majorly involve tabular representations of findings and analysis of the findings. Subsequent analysis of the presented tables will be presented. In order to prevent the idea of bias against Saudi Arabia, another Middle East nation was selected for analysis, with the aim of drawing parallels with Saudi Arabia. Iran is another Middle East nation that has been firmly focused on by democracies, with a plethora of issues brought into light; including human rights violations. Analysis of Iran alongside Saudi Arabi will help point out any elements of bias with respect to how Western media coverage of human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia. Several countries are considered as democracies around the world. These are nations where the rule of law is evident, clear separation of powers between government organs is assured, and there are desired checks and balances. Nations such as Australia, France, New Zealand, United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom among others are considered as world democracies. The paper settles on media from the United Kingdom and the United States, as they stand out as the most reputable democracies of the world; with significant international influence. In gathering information for the paper, I came up with a code book that took me to the information I needed for the paper. Information on media, location, and ideology informed the media reports settled on for the paper. Media Reports on Human Rights issues in Saudi Arabia and Iran Saudi Arabia Country Left Wing Right Wing United Kingdom Daily Mirror: 16th September 2019, reports that Saudi Arabia has executed 134 people, declares the act barbaric, and urges world leaders to boycott the G20 summit in Saudi Arabia. Daily Telegraph: 13th November 2019, report on Saudi Arabia’s act of distancing itself to claims that it intends to declare feminism as extremism. Points out to the nation’s efforts to present a modernized version of the kingdom. United States New York Times: 13th November 2019, reports that Saudi’s anti extremist force named feminists are targets, but briefly. The act is interpreted as a sign of division within the government, with segments warming up to a more liberal nation. Fox News: 7th March 2019, reports that jailed Saudi women’s rights activists are subjected to brutal torture and sexual harassment. Iran Country Left Right Wing United Kingdom Daily Mirror: 14th March 2019, reported that a human rights activist lawyer had been sentenced to 148 lashes. Her crime was representing women persecuted for not wearing head scarves; though the government preferred other frivolous charges against her. The Daily Telegraph: 22nd October 2019, reported that Miss World Iran 2018 was pleading for asylum in the Philippines after being targeted by Iran for assault charges, with the reality being that her political activism and advocacy for women’s rights put her in trouble. United State New York Times: 13th March 2019, reports on the Iranian lawyer sentenced to 38 years imprisonment and 148 lashes; that her only crime was defending women’s rights. Fox News: 24th October 2019, reported that European lawmakers demanded sanctions on Iran for human rights abuse, terming US sanctions on Iran definitive while European sanctions as merely symbolic World Leaders (Politician)’s Comments on Human Rights Issues in Saudi Arabia and Iran Saudi Arabia Politician/Leader Name Country Politician/Leader Ideology (Left/Right wing) Reporting Newspaper Comments Donald Trump United States Right Wing The Guardian (UK), 25th June 2019. “He has seen several reports on Saudi Arabia Human Rights abuses, and does not see a problem in trading with them. Sally Mansfield Australia (UN Human Rights Council) Left Wing The Guardian (UK), 24th September 2019. “We remain deeply concerned at the human rights situation in Saudi Arabia” Iran Politician/Leader Name Country Politician/Leader Ideology (Left/Right wing) Reporting Newspaper Comments Donald Trump United States Right Wing Speech/White House Press, 25th September 2019. “The regime’s record of death and destruction is well known to us all” Abdullah bin Zayed Al-Nahyan United Arab Emirates (Foreign Minister) Right Wing TRT World (Turkey), 28th September 2019. World leaders should take a firm stance on Iran Tabular Representation of Media Reports Harsh Reports Tolerant Reports Left wing Right wing Left wing Right wing 3 (2 on Iran and 1 on Saudi Arabia) 3 (2 on Iran and 1 on Saudi Arabia) 1 (on Saudi Arabia) 1 (on Saudi Arabia) Tabular Representation of Politicians’ Comments Harsh Tolerant Left Wing Right Wing Left Wing Right Wing 1 (on Saudi Arabia) 3 (two on Iran and one on Saudi Arabia) 0 1 (on Saudi Arabia) The analysis of media reports and politician comments as covered by media outlets located outside Saudi Arabia, leads to the finding that media coverage is largely based on the ideology in a particular country or locality and global politics. Before commencing the exercise, it could have been presumed that international media, particularly western media, cover negatively human rights issues in Saudi Arabia. However, the inclusion of Iran as part of the exercise has revealed that ideology and global politics inform some of the reports made in the media and utterances by politicians from different regions. Human rights abuses in Iran and Saudi Arabia were largely harshly reported by right-wing media outlets in the UK and the United States. Out of eight reports, there were only two tolerant once; the right-wing Daily Telegraph of the UK and the left-wing New York Times of the United States noting trends towards positive change in how human rights issues are handled in Saudi Arabia. Six reports, from both left-wing and right-wing media entities, in the UK and the United States harshly reported human rights abuses in both Saudi Arabia and Iran. The Guardian, a left-wing United Kingdom media outlet, harshly blasted the utterances by United States president Donald Trump with regards to continued trade with Saudi Arabia despite allegations of human rights abuses. The utterances by world politicians point out to world leaders defending their own ideologies and positions. President Donald Trump for example was critical of the situation in Iran, but downplayed Saudi Arabia’s violations. Other politicians expressed their views based on their ideologies and the positions they held; as well as trends in global politics. Ideologies tend to inform reporting in media (Van Dijk, 2006). Political leaders are also prone to form their opinions on various issues based on their ideologies and inherent interests on a particular issue, as prevalent in global politics. The exercise on media reporting on human rights violations in Saudi Arabia has made this apparent.   Reference Chakraborty, B. (2019). Jailed Saudi women’s rights activist subjected to ‘brutal torture and sexual harassment’, brother claims. Fox News. Cheeseman, A. (2019). Saudi Arabia distances itself from video warning that feminism is extremism. Daily Telegraph. Shadwell, T. (2019). Saudi Arabia executes 134 as crucifixions rise – with 3 children at risk of death. Mirror. The Editorial Board. (2019). Her crime? Defending women’s rights. New York Times. Van Dijk, T. A. (2006). Ideology and discourse analysis. Journal of political ideologies, 11(2), 115-140.

Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Name Institution Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a country that has been in the international limelight for stretchered periods of time in the recent past, with respect to reports of human rights violations. Advanced democracies of the world seemRead more about We can work on Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Name Institution Media Reporting of Human Rights Violations in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a country that has been in the international limelight for stretchered periods of time in the recent past, with respect to reports of human rights violations. Advanced democracies of the world seem to take a keen interest in the human rights issues in Saudi Arabia. This paper is an assessment of the extent to which international media based in democracies cover human rights violations in Saudi Arabia, focusing solely on 2019 coverage. The paper will majorly involve tabular representations of findings and analysis of the findings. Subsequent analysis of the presented tables will be presented. In order to prevent the idea of bias against Saudi Arabia, another Middle East nation was selected for analysis, with the aim of drawing parallels with Saudi Arabia. Iran is another Middle East nation that has been firmly focused on by democracies, with a plethora of issues brought into light; including human rights violations. Analysis of Iran alongside Saudi Arabi will help point out any elements of bias with respect to how Western media coverage of human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia. Several countries are considered as democracies around the world. These are nations where the rule of law is evident, clear separation of powers between government organs is assured, and there are desired checks and balances. Nations such as Australia, France, New Zealand, United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom among others are considered as world democracies. The paper settles on media from the United Kingdom and the United States, as they stand out as the most reputable democracies of the world; with significant international influence. In gathering information for the paper, I came up with a code book that took me to the information I needed for the paper. Information on media, location, and ideology informed the media reports settled on for the paper. Media Reports on Human Rights issues in Saudi Arabia and Iran Saudi Arabia Country Left Wing Right Wing United Kingdom Daily Mirror: 16th September 2019, reports that Saudi Arabia has executed 134 people, declares the act barbaric, and urges world leaders to boycott the G20 summit in Saudi Arabia. Daily Telegraph: 13th November 2019, report on Saudi Arabia’s act of distancing itself to claims that it intends to declare feminism as extremism. Points out to the nation’s efforts to present a modernized version of the kingdom. United States New York Times: 13th November 2019, reports that Saudi’s anti extremist force named feminists are targets, but briefly. The act is interpreted as a sign of division within the government, with segments warming up to a more liberal nation. Fox News: 7th March 2019, reports that jailed Saudi women’s rights activists are subjected to brutal torture and sexual harassment. Iran Country Left Right Wing United Kingdom Daily Mirror: 14th March 2019, reported that a human rights activist lawyer had been sentenced to 148 lashes. Her crime was representing women persecuted for not wearing head scarves; though the government preferred other frivolous charges against her. The Daily Telegraph: 22nd October 2019, reported that Miss World Iran 2018 was pleading for asylum in the Philippines after being targeted by Iran for assault charges, with the reality being that her political activism and advocacy for women’s rights put her in trouble. United State New York Times: 13th March 2019, reports on the Iranian lawyer sentenced to 38 years imprisonment and 148 lashes; that her only crime was defending women’s rights. Fox News: 24th October 2019, reported that European lawmakers demanded sanctions on Iran for human rights abuse, terming US sanctions on Iran definitive while European sanctions as merely symbolic World Leaders (Politician)’s Comments on Human Rights Issues in Saudi Arabia and Iran Saudi Arabia Politician/Leader Name Country Politician/Leader Ideology (Left/Right wing) Reporting Newspaper Comments Donald Trump United States Right Wing The Guardian (UK), 25th June 2019. “He has seen several reports on Saudi Arabia Human Rights abuses, and does not see a problem in trading with them. Sally Mansfield Australia (UN Human Rights Council) Left Wing The Guardian (UK), 24th September 2019. “We remain deeply concerned at the human rights situation in Saudi Arabia” Iran Politician/Leader Name Country Politician/Leader Ideology (Left/Right wing) Reporting Newspaper Comments Donald Trump United States Right Wing Speech/White House Press, 25th September 2019. “The regime’s record of death and destruction is well known to us all” Abdullah bin Zayed Al-Nahyan United Arab Emirates (Foreign Minister) Right Wing TRT World (Turkey), 28th September 2019. World leaders should take a firm stance on Iran Tabular Representation of Media Reports Harsh Reports Tolerant Reports Left wing Right wing Left wing Right wing 3 (2 on Iran and 1 on Saudi Arabia) 3 (2 on Iran and 1 on Saudi Arabia) 1 (on Saudi Arabia) 1 (on Saudi Arabia) Tabular Representation of Politicians’ Comments Harsh Tolerant Left Wing Right Wing Left Wing Right Wing 1 (on Saudi Arabia) 3 (two on Iran and one on Saudi Arabia) 0 1 (on Saudi Arabia) The analysis of media reports and politician comments as covered by media outlets located outside Saudi Arabia, leads to the finding that media coverage is largely based on the ideology in a particular country or locality and global politics. Before commencing the exercise, it could have been presumed that international media, particularly western media, cover negatively human rights issues in Saudi Arabia. However, the inclusion of Iran as part of the exercise has revealed that ideology and global politics inform some of the reports made in the media and utterances by politicians from different regions. Human rights abuses in Iran and Saudi Arabia were largely harshly reported by right-wing media outlets in the UK and the United States. Out of eight reports, there were only two tolerant once; the right-wing Daily Telegraph of the UK and the left-wing New York Times of the United States noting trends towards positive change in how human rights issues are handled in Saudi Arabia. Six reports, from both left-wing and right-wing media entities, in the UK and the United States harshly reported human rights abuses in both Saudi Arabia and Iran. The Guardian, a left-wing United Kingdom media outlet, harshly blasted the utterances by United States president Donald Trump with regards to continued trade with Saudi Arabia despite allegations of human rights abuses. The utterances by world politicians point out to world leaders defending their own ideologies and positions. President Donald Trump for example was critical of the situation in Iran, but downplayed Saudi Arabia’s violations. Other politicians expressed their views based on their ideologies and the positions they held; as well as trends in global politics. Ideologies tend to inform reporting in media (Van Dijk, 2006). Political leaders are also prone to form their opinions on various issues based on their ideologies and inherent interests on a particular issue, as prevalent in global politics. The exercise on media reporting on human rights violations in Saudi Arabia has made this apparent.   Reference Chakraborty, B. (2019). Jailed Saudi women’s rights activist subjected to ‘brutal torture and sexual harassment’, brother claims. Fox News. Cheeseman, A. (2019). Saudi Arabia distances itself from video warning that feminism is extremism. Daily Telegraph. Shadwell, T. (2019). Saudi Arabia executes 134 as crucifixions rise – with 3 children at risk of death. Mirror. The Editorial Board. (2019). Her crime? Defending women’s rights. New York Times. Van Dijk, T. A. (2006). Ideology and discourse analysis. Journal of political ideologies, 11(2), 115-140.[…]

We can work on Non-Profit Fundraising Name Institution Affiliation Fundraising Klein (2009) describes the concept of conversion rate and he describes it as the proportion of first-time donors who provide a donation for the second time. According to the author the ideal conversion rate is roughly 40%. To have a higher conversion rate organization should ensure that they personalize their thank-you notes, spell donors’ names accurately, send them annual report, newsletter or any other kind of correspondence between sending them a money request. Also, the overall retention rate of major donors should be roughly 66%. Klein (2009) also describes the concept of fulfillment cost and this is what it costs an organization to keep a donor. Klein recommends that this cost should be roughly $3 and 10 yearly for every donor. Organizations should frequently go through their mailing list to ensure they do not keep records of people who cannot donate again. Notably, organizations aim to develop a donor base because it is the most unswerving way to sustain their operations overtime and also because foundation funding has turned out to be scarcer in the economy. Klein (2009) emphasizes that the lifeblood of stable and successful social change nonprofits is loyal donors. Klein’s article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses various concepts related to fundraising such as how to attract and retain donors, and sources of money such as community funding. The book also describes who can be potential donors; that is people who believe in your organization’s work. Thus, the book deliberates on effective fundraising strategies such as reaching out to people who deeply care about the organization and those who support its mission as well as segmenting donors to establish appropriate relationships with them. Klein (2009) indicates that donors should be segmented based on their longevity of giving, frequency of giving and size of gift. Furthermore, the book is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes how organizations should build relationships with donors though knowing them personally and approaching them to request for funds face-to-face and not just by communicating with them through e-mail or phone. Giving USA (2018) provides a synopsis of giving in 2017. As stated in the article total 2017 contributions were $410.02 billion of which 70% was provided by individuals, 16% by foundations, 9% by bequests and 5% by corporations. The recipients of these contributions by category were religion, education, human services, foundations, health, public society benefit, humanities, art and culture, international affairs as well as animals/environment. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the major sources of donations and the factors that influence the amount these donors give. For instance, increase in corporate donations has been attributed to a 4.1% rise in corporate pre-tax profits. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) states that money is important to nonprofits but their leaders often find it uncomfortable or challenging to request for it from people. Many extraordinary and bold nonprofits fail to assume bold fundraising efforts. Raising money is not easy, however, nonprofit leaders who want to see their organizations succeed must be committed to fundraising. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) summarizes three proved principles that are followed by effective fundraisers; the first one is spend money to get money. Secondly, nonprofit leaders should go where there is money, for instance money is with individuals and not foundations; thus, nonprofits should target them. Thirdly, nonprofit leaders should overcome their fear/ discomfort of talking about finances by thinking in terms of their mission which is to change the world as opposed to just asking for money. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses effective strategies of raising money such as planning for the top prospects through understanding their passion and interests as well as thanking donors to set stage for another gift. The authors also recommend that to attract funds easily, non-profit leaders should be good stewards of the offered donations. Foster, Kim & Christiansen (2009) describe their ten funding models based on three parameters; decision makers motivations, types of decision makers and source of funds. The ten funding models are heartfelt connector, beneficiary builder, member motivator, big bettor, public provider, public innovator, beneficiary broker, resource recycler, market maker and local nationalizer. The first three models; member motivator, beneficiary builder, and heartfelt connector are financed by individual donors. While big bettor is financed mostly by foundations, one or a few individuals. The beneficiary broker, policy innovator and public provider are mainly funded by the government. The resource recycler model is supported mostly by corporate funding while the local nationalizer and market maker have mixed funders. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the various funding models and in return, fundraisers will get to the funding model that works best for their organization because different nonprofits take varying funding paths. Bassoff & Chandler (2001) describes the myths related no nonprofit fundraising and the reality shift associated with the myths. The article is related to non-profit fundraising career as it explains the reality behind some myths that may discourage fundraisers from seeking funds to support their mission. For instance, the myth that money comes from huge companies can mislead fundraisers by making them to target and spend on big companies while individuals are also major donors, yet if this myth is taken into consideration individuals may be ignored. References Bassoff, M., & Chandler, S. (2001). Notes from Relationshift: Revolutionary Fundraising. Author’s Choice Publishing. Foster, W. L., Kim, P., & Christiansen, B. (2009). Ten nonprofit funding models. Stanford Social Innovation Review Spring 2009 Giving USA (2018). An Overview of Giving in 2017. Jonker, K., Meehan III, W. F., & Iseminger, E. (2014). Fundraising Is Fundamental (If Not Always Fun). Stanford Social Innovation Review Klein, K. (2009). Reliable fundraising in unreliable times: What good causes need to know to survive and thrive (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.

Non-Profit Fundraising Name Institution Affiliation Fundraising Klein (2009) describes the concept of conversion rate and he describes it as the proportion of first-time donors who provide a donation for the second time. According to the author the ideal conversion rate is roughly 40%. To have a higher conversion rate organization should ensure that they personalizeRead more about We can work on Non-Profit Fundraising Name Institution Affiliation Fundraising Klein (2009) describes the concept of conversion rate and he describes it as the proportion of first-time donors who provide a donation for the second time. According to the author the ideal conversion rate is roughly 40%. To have a higher conversion rate organization should ensure that they personalize their thank-you notes, spell donors’ names accurately, send them annual report, newsletter or any other kind of correspondence between sending them a money request. Also, the overall retention rate of major donors should be roughly 66%. Klein (2009) also describes the concept of fulfillment cost and this is what it costs an organization to keep a donor. Klein recommends that this cost should be roughly $3 and 10 yearly for every donor. Organizations should frequently go through their mailing list to ensure they do not keep records of people who cannot donate again. Notably, organizations aim to develop a donor base because it is the most unswerving way to sustain their operations overtime and also because foundation funding has turned out to be scarcer in the economy. Klein (2009) emphasizes that the lifeblood of stable and successful social change nonprofits is loyal donors. Klein’s article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses various concepts related to fundraising such as how to attract and retain donors, and sources of money such as community funding. The book also describes who can be potential donors; that is people who believe in your organization’s work. Thus, the book deliberates on effective fundraising strategies such as reaching out to people who deeply care about the organization and those who support its mission as well as segmenting donors to establish appropriate relationships with them. Klein (2009) indicates that donors should be segmented based on their longevity of giving, frequency of giving and size of gift. Furthermore, the book is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes how organizations should build relationships with donors though knowing them personally and approaching them to request for funds face-to-face and not just by communicating with them through e-mail or phone. Giving USA (2018) provides a synopsis of giving in 2017. As stated in the article total 2017 contributions were $410.02 billion of which 70% was provided by individuals, 16% by foundations, 9% by bequests and 5% by corporations. The recipients of these contributions by category were religion, education, human services, foundations, health, public society benefit, humanities, art and culture, international affairs as well as animals/environment. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the major sources of donations and the factors that influence the amount these donors give. For instance, increase in corporate donations has been attributed to a 4.1% rise in corporate pre-tax profits. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) states that money is important to nonprofits but their leaders often find it uncomfortable or challenging to request for it from people. Many extraordinary and bold nonprofits fail to assume bold fundraising efforts. Raising money is not easy, however, nonprofit leaders who want to see their organizations succeed must be committed to fundraising. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) summarizes three proved principles that are followed by effective fundraisers; the first one is spend money to get money. Secondly, nonprofit leaders should go where there is money, for instance money is with individuals and not foundations; thus, nonprofits should target them. Thirdly, nonprofit leaders should overcome their fear/ discomfort of talking about finances by thinking in terms of their mission which is to change the world as opposed to just asking for money. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses effective strategies of raising money such as planning for the top prospects through understanding their passion and interests as well as thanking donors to set stage for another gift. The authors also recommend that to attract funds easily, non-profit leaders should be good stewards of the offered donations. Foster, Kim & Christiansen (2009) describe their ten funding models based on three parameters; decision makers motivations, types of decision makers and source of funds. The ten funding models are heartfelt connector, beneficiary builder, member motivator, big bettor, public provider, public innovator, beneficiary broker, resource recycler, market maker and local nationalizer. The first three models; member motivator, beneficiary builder, and heartfelt connector are financed by individual donors. While big bettor is financed mostly by foundations, one or a few individuals. The beneficiary broker, policy innovator and public provider are mainly funded by the government. The resource recycler model is supported mostly by corporate funding while the local nationalizer and market maker have mixed funders. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the various funding models and in return, fundraisers will get to the funding model that works best for their organization because different nonprofits take varying funding paths. Bassoff & Chandler (2001) describes the myths related no nonprofit fundraising and the reality shift associated with the myths. The article is related to non-profit fundraising career as it explains the reality behind some myths that may discourage fundraisers from seeking funds to support their mission. For instance, the myth that money comes from huge companies can mislead fundraisers by making them to target and spend on big companies while individuals are also major donors, yet if this myth is taken into consideration individuals may be ignored. References Bassoff, M., & Chandler, S. (2001). Notes from Relationshift: Revolutionary Fundraising. Author’s Choice Publishing. Foster, W. L., Kim, P., & Christiansen, B. (2009). Ten nonprofit funding models. Stanford Social Innovation Review Spring 2009 Giving USA (2018). An Overview of Giving in 2017. Jonker, K., Meehan III, W. F., & Iseminger, E. (2014). Fundraising Is Fundamental (If Not Always Fun). Stanford Social Innovation Review Klein, K. (2009). Reliable fundraising in unreliable times: What good causes need to know to survive and thrive (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.[…]

We can work on Law and Ethical Reasoning Name of Student Institutional Affiliation  Law and Ethical Reasoning Living a will provide people with the opportunity to state their preferences about the type of medical treatment they can receive if they are unable to give informed consent (Rao, 2000). The living wills are useful in any case where the patient cannot state their medical choices. In a large number of states, pregnant women do not have equal right as other people to create and adhere to a living will. The justification for the exclusion of pregnant women is that they may not have considered the effects of their choices during pregnancy. These statutes claim to protect women who would be devastated to find out that the doctor continued with a life-ending treatment while in fact, she would have chosen to continue with life-sustaining treatment to give the fetus an opportunity to grow. Living wills for pregnant women are heavily influenced by the politics surrounding abortion. Most state legislatures have a clause to sidestep the living will as it is only logical to protect the life of the unborn baby by giving the incapacitated pregnant woman life-sustaining treatment. However, this decision does not consider that forcing medical care on the pregnant patient violates her autonomy as a woman. The pregnancy exemption laws impermissibly restrict the woman’s right to refuse unwanted medical intervention as well as their right to abortion. These exemptions also infringe on the pregnant woman’s ability to control their end of life healthcare, more commonly known as the “right to die” (Villarreal, 2018). In most cases, the illness or accident that incapacitates a pregnant woman also jeopardizes the health and survival of the fetus. Therefore, continuing the pregnancy is often futile. Maintaining a woman on life support is harmful to the fetus because ventilators and catheters often cause an infection that further jeopardizes the development of the fetus. The exemption of a pregnant woman from the right to enact a living will do not allow for the consideration of the pregnant woman’s pain, the growth of the unborn baby or the prognosis of the unborn baby (Villarreal, 2018). Pregnancy exemptions to living wills are unconstitutional, not only because they create an undue burden on the woman’s right to have an abortion before the fetus is viable but also because the state’s interest in the prospective life of the unborn baby cannot overrule a woman’s right to refuse medical care. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the court stated that women maintained the right to terminate a pregnancy before it was viable (Villarreal, 2018). However, the state’s interest in life would be allowed to proceed only if the restriction on the woman’s right to choose does not place an undue burden on the woman. If the woman is incapacitated due to injury or illness, continuing the pregnancy infringes on their right to choose by placing an undue burden on the woman (Epstein & Walker, 2013). Most states with the exemptions on pregnancy women coerce women into accepting unwanted medical care if it is possible that the fetus will grow to pave way for “live birth”; a standard that is vague and medically uncertain and therefore places an undue burden on the rights of women to abortion. In In re Quinlan, the court ruled that the individual’s right to privacy also includes the right to decline from unwanted medical care as well as the right to abortion (Rao, 2000). The ruling found that the state cannot compel unwanted medical care on people that have expressed their wish to stop life-sustaining medical care to medical professionals and others through the healthcare power of an attorney. This ruling should take precedence when a pregnant woman is incapacitated. The state’s interest in human life should not outweigh the person’s right to refuse unwanted medical care. Therefore, the state’s interest should not justify the violation of a woman’s bodily autonomy notwithstanding how far along she is in the pregnancy (Epstein & Walker, 2013). In my opinion, society should choose to maintain the woman’s autonomy over her body, above all else. If the patient is incapacitated with no signs of recovery, I will opt to discontinue treatment. Continuing to put a woman such as nancy under medical care would place a burden on her dying body to support a fetus. It would also lengthen the suffering of the patient. The purpose of medical care is to alleviate suffering not to increase it. Also, continuing to give medical care does not guarantee the survival of the fetus. It may also lead to the birth of an infant with severe defects. This infant would then begin a life with difficulties, and the chances of their survival would be minimized due to the lack of a mother. Continuing medical care also places financial stress on the family as well as the healthcare providers. Even though theoretically, the patients financial status should not determine the level of care they receive, in reality, it is among the most crucial factors in determining a patient’s access to healthcare. Therefore, society should consider the financial implications too. References Epstein, L., & Walker, T. G. (2013). Constitutional Law: Rights. Sage. Rao, R. (2000). Property, privacy, and the human body. BUL rev., 80, 359. Villarreal, E. (2018). Pregnancy and Living Wills: A Behavioral Economic Analysis. Yale LJF, 128, 1052.

Law and Ethical Reasoning Name of Student Institutional Affiliation  Law and Ethical Reasoning Living a will provide people with the opportunity to state their preferences about the type of medical treatment they can receive if they are unable to give informed consent (Rao, 2000). The living wills are useful in any case where the patientRead more about We can work on Law and Ethical Reasoning Name of Student Institutional Affiliation  Law and Ethical Reasoning Living a will provide people with the opportunity to state their preferences about the type of medical treatment they can receive if they are unable to give informed consent (Rao, 2000). The living wills are useful in any case where the patient cannot state their medical choices. In a large number of states, pregnant women do not have equal right as other people to create and adhere to a living will. The justification for the exclusion of pregnant women is that they may not have considered the effects of their choices during pregnancy. These statutes claim to protect women who would be devastated to find out that the doctor continued with a life-ending treatment while in fact, she would have chosen to continue with life-sustaining treatment to give the fetus an opportunity to grow. Living wills for pregnant women are heavily influenced by the politics surrounding abortion. Most state legislatures have a clause to sidestep the living will as it is only logical to protect the life of the unborn baby by giving the incapacitated pregnant woman life-sustaining treatment. However, this decision does not consider that forcing medical care on the pregnant patient violates her autonomy as a woman. The pregnancy exemption laws impermissibly restrict the woman’s right to refuse unwanted medical intervention as well as their right to abortion. These exemptions also infringe on the pregnant woman’s ability to control their end of life healthcare, more commonly known as the “right to die” (Villarreal, 2018). In most cases, the illness or accident that incapacitates a pregnant woman also jeopardizes the health and survival of the fetus. Therefore, continuing the pregnancy is often futile. Maintaining a woman on life support is harmful to the fetus because ventilators and catheters often cause an infection that further jeopardizes the development of the fetus. The exemption of a pregnant woman from the right to enact a living will do not allow for the consideration of the pregnant woman’s pain, the growth of the unborn baby or the prognosis of the unborn baby (Villarreal, 2018). Pregnancy exemptions to living wills are unconstitutional, not only because they create an undue burden on the woman’s right to have an abortion before the fetus is viable but also because the state’s interest in the prospective life of the unborn baby cannot overrule a woman’s right to refuse medical care. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the court stated that women maintained the right to terminate a pregnancy before it was viable (Villarreal, 2018). However, the state’s interest in life would be allowed to proceed only if the restriction on the woman’s right to choose does not place an undue burden on the woman. If the woman is incapacitated due to injury or illness, continuing the pregnancy infringes on their right to choose by placing an undue burden on the woman (Epstein & Walker, 2013). Most states with the exemptions on pregnancy women coerce women into accepting unwanted medical care if it is possible that the fetus will grow to pave way for “live birth”; a standard that is vague and medically uncertain and therefore places an undue burden on the rights of women to abortion. In In re Quinlan, the court ruled that the individual’s right to privacy also includes the right to decline from unwanted medical care as well as the right to abortion (Rao, 2000). The ruling found that the state cannot compel unwanted medical care on people that have expressed their wish to stop life-sustaining medical care to medical professionals and others through the healthcare power of an attorney. This ruling should take precedence when a pregnant woman is incapacitated. The state’s interest in human life should not outweigh the person’s right to refuse unwanted medical care. Therefore, the state’s interest should not justify the violation of a woman’s bodily autonomy notwithstanding how far along she is in the pregnancy (Epstein & Walker, 2013). In my opinion, society should choose to maintain the woman’s autonomy over her body, above all else. If the patient is incapacitated with no signs of recovery, I will opt to discontinue treatment. Continuing to put a woman such as nancy under medical care would place a burden on her dying body to support a fetus. It would also lengthen the suffering of the patient. The purpose of medical care is to alleviate suffering not to increase it. Also, continuing to give medical care does not guarantee the survival of the fetus. It may also lead to the birth of an infant with severe defects. This infant would then begin a life with difficulties, and the chances of their survival would be minimized due to the lack of a mother. Continuing medical care also places financial stress on the family as well as the healthcare providers. Even though theoretically, the patients financial status should not determine the level of care they receive, in reality, it is among the most crucial factors in determining a patient’s access to healthcare. Therefore, society should consider the financial implications too. References Epstein, L., & Walker, T. G. (2013). Constitutional Law: Rights. Sage. Rao, R. (2000). Property, privacy, and the human body. BUL rev., 80, 359. Villarreal, E. (2018). Pregnancy and Living Wills: A Behavioral Economic Analysis. Yale LJF, 128, 1052.[…]