Genetics and Gene Expression


Question one

Below is an image of the genomic region containing the gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC is a gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that is critical for the plant flowering and the keeping of time for the circadian clock. The figure below shows the gene model for FLC. The dark shaded boxes are the exons and the lines connected the exons represent the introns. The genomic sequence is 6067 base pairs long, and the encoded protein is 196 amino acids long. The first 10 amino acids (in one letter abbreviations) are: MGRKKLEIKR. Please answer the following and be sure to include proper orientation. (Note: that for some questions there may be more than one correct answer.)   

  1. Write out a RNA sequence that would be translated into the first 10 amino acids listed in the question above.
  2. Write out the sequence of DNA template strand that would give rise to the RNA sequence you listed in part a.
  3. List the anti-codons in all the tRNA molecules that were required for the translation of the ten amino acids of this polypeptide.   
  4. Explain how a 6067 base pair long genomic region is coding for only a 196 amino acid long polypeptide? (You will need to use more than one line of rationale to get full credit on this part of the question.)
  5. Name and describe fully one of the processes that it took to go from the template strand of DNA in part b to the mRNA. Be sure to include all the necessary steps, enzymes, and factors involved in this process. (Remember that as you have access to notes – your answer should be accurate, fully complete and detailed.)

Question Two

You need to select 4 types of inheritance (see the options below). You will compare and contrast each. Be sure to discuss distinctive features that set each apart from the other three types. For each type of inheritance you will need to provide an example (one you make up on your own – not a “real-life” example) to illustrate how this type of inheritance works and to fully differentiate it from the other three types of inheritance.

Question Three

You are a cancer geneticist looking into a putative tumor suppressor gene. You have found several cancer patients for whom you suspect have cancer because of this tumor suppressor gene. You come up with three processes that could have caused the cancer in these patients: mutation, transcriptional regulation and a DNA repair mechanism. For each process, explain specifically how each processes could cause cancer. When describing each process you should be specific (For example: don’t speak generally about repair, be specific about a type of repair and how it could lead to cancer.) Be thorough in each of your three descriptions and make sure to relate each process back to the cancer phenotype (having cancer as a result of something to do with this tumor suppressor gene).

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