Biology Academic Essay


  1. Which of the following includes all the others?
  2. A) atom
  3. B) cell
  4. C) organism
  5. D) population
  6. In science, a hypothesis must be
  7. A) testable
  8. B) derived from a theory
  9. C) a known fact
  10. D) able to be proven absolutely true
  11. A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. The atomic number of chlorine is
  12. A) 8
  13. B) 17
  14. C) 35
  15. D) 52
  16. If you place the probe of a pH meter in lye or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), it will read pH 14. Sodium hydroxide is
  17. A) an acid
  18. B) neutral
  19. C) a base
  20. This polysaccharide forms fibers that are a major component of plant cell walls:
  21. A) glucose
  22. B) starch
  23. C) cellulose
  24. D) glycogen
  25. Which of these types of molecules contain nitrogen?
  26. A) polysaccharides
  27. B) proteins
  28. C) steroids
  29. Fats contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins because
  30. A) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of oxygen atoms
  31. B) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of hydrogen atoms
  32. C) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of carbon atoms
  33. D) fat molecules contain a higher percentage of adipose atoms
  34. Prokaryotic cells, with no nucleus or membranous organelles, are found in
  35. A) animals
  36. B) bacteria
  37. C) fungi
  38. D) plants
  39. The main function of a ribosome is to
  40. A) extract energy from glucose
  41. B) synthesize glucose
  42. C) store food in the form of fat
  43. D) synthesize proteins
  44. Mitochondria
  45. A) package proteins for secretion from cell
  46. B) contain chromosomes
  47. C) are sites of oxidation of glucose to generate ATP
  48. D) synthesize proteins
  49. The plasma membrane consists of
  50. A) a single layer of phospholipid molecules
  51. B) a double layer of phospholipid molecules in which proteins are embedded
  52. C) several layers of protein and carbohydrate molecules
  53. D) a triple layer of phospholipids and carbohydrates
  54. The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration across a membrane to a region of high concentration by use of ATP energy is
  55. A) active transport
  56. B) diffusion
  57. C) passive transport
  58. D) osmosis
  59. The oxygen in our atmosphere is produced by
  60. A) greenhouse effect
  61. B) cellular respiration
  62. C) photosynthesis
  63. D) volcanic eruptions
  64. Yeast cells break down glucose anaerobically into
  65. A) ethanol and CO2
  66. B) lactic acid and CO2
  67. C) lactic acid and H2O
  68. D) ethanol and H2O
  69. Carbon dioxide is released in
  70. A) the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis
  71. B) the Krebs cycle
  72. C) glycolysis
  73. D) the Calvin cycle
  74. If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is lower than the concentration inside
  75. A) water will tend to enter the cell by osmosis
  76. B) water will tend to leave the cell by osmosis
  77. C) glucose will tend to enter the cell by osmosis
  78. D) glucose will tend to leave the cell by osmosis
  79. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
  80. A) the cell will shrink
  81. B) the cell will swell and may burst
  82. C) the cell will remain the same size
  83. Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes?
  84. A) they are proteins
  85. B) they speed up the rate of chemical reactions
  86. C) they act on specific substances called substrates
  87. D) they are used up in each reaction, thus need to be produced in large quantities
  88. Which of these does not have to be present for photosynthesis to occur?
  89. A) water
  90. B) carbon dioxide
  91. C) glucose
  92. D) chlorophyll
  93. Each new cell produced by this process will have an identical copy of all chromosomes and genes possessed by the parent cell:
  94. A) mitosis
  95. B) meiosis
  96. During the first division of meiosis,
  97. A) chromosomes separate at the centromere
  98. B) homologous chromosomes separate
  99. C) chromosomes become triploid
  100. If a normal parent and an albino parent have albino child, the genotypes of the parents are
  101. A) AA x Aa
  102. B) Aa x Aa
  103. C) Aa x aa
  104. D) aa x aa
  105. The number of chromosomes in a human egg cell is
  106. A) 4
  107. B) 23
  108. C) 46
  109. D) 48
  110. A change in DNA base sequence from CATAC to CACAC would describe
  111. A) translation
  112. B) replication
  113. C) transcription
  114. D) mutation
  115. Which of these processes does notoccur in the nucleus?
  116. A) DNA replication
  117. B) transcription
  118. C) translation
  119. tRNA molecules contain anticodons and carry amino acids to be used in this process:
  120. A) mutation
  121. B) DNA replication
  122. C) transcription
  123. D) translation
  124. Exchange of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes before the first division of meiosis is caused by
  125. A) X-linkage
  126. B) crossing over
  127. C) replication
  128. D) cytokinesis
  129. Which is not a subunit of DNA?
  130. A) adenine
  131. B) guanine
  132. C) uracil
  133. D) phosphate
  134. A karyotype of an individual with Down syndrome has how many chromosomes?
  135. A) 3
  136. B) 23
  137. C) 46
  138. D) 47
  139. If a heterozygous male mates with an albino female, what percentage of albino children would be expected?
  140. A) 0%
  141. B) 25%
  142. C) 50%
  143. D) 75%
  144. E) 100%
  145. A father with genotype IAIB and mother with phenotype O could produce children with these blood types:
  146. A) AB only
  147. B) A and B only
  148. C) A, B, and AB only
  149. D) A, B, AB, and O
  150. During DNA replication, an old DNA strand with base sequence ATCTGAGTA would serve as a template to form a new complementary strand with the base sequence:
  154. In peas, tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t) and, on a separate chromosome set, purple flower (P) is dominant to white flower (p). If Gregor Mendel crosses the genotypes TtPp and ttPp, what is the expected ratio of phenotypes in the offspring?
  155. A) 9/16 tall purple flowered, 3/16 tall white, 3/16 dwarf purple, 1/16 dwarf white
  156. B) 3/8 tall purple flowered, 1/8 tall white, 3/8 dwarf purple, 1/8 dwarf white
  157. C) 1/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 tall white, 1/4 dwarf purple, 1/4 dwarf white
  158. D) 3/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 dwarf white
  159. Queen Victoria’s son Leopold had hemophilia, which is caused by a sex-linked recessive gene (Xh). Leopold lived to be 31 years old and fathered a normal daughter. What is the genotype of his daughter?
  160. A) XHXH
  161. B) XHXh
  162. C) XhXh
  163. D) XHY
  164. Microevolution by genetic drift is more likely in
  165. A) large populations
  166. B) small populations
  167. New alleles appear in a species by
  168. A) genetic drift
  169. B) mutation
  170. C) gene flow
  171. D) natural selection
  172. The insect wing, bat wing, and bird wing are
  173. A) analogous structures
  174. B) homologous structures
  175. Speciation is most likely when a huge continental population of a snail species
  176. A) undergoes genetic drift
  177. B) is forced north by global warming
  178. C) is divided in two over the eons by the rise of a mountain range
  179. Groups of organisms that interbreed in nature and are reproductively isolated from other such groups defines
  180. A) communities
  181. B) hybrids
  182. C) families
  183. D) species
  184. Certain species of ants protect, and receive food from, certain species of acacia trees in the tropics. This exemplifies
  185. A) predation
  186. B) mutualism
  187. C) competition
  188. The most important cause of species extinction due to humans in recent centuries is
  189. A) disease
  190. B) global warming
  191. C) genetic engineering
  192. D) habitat loss
  193. If the decomposers were removed from an ecosystem, the other organisms would eventually die because
  194. A) green plants would run out of necessary minerals in the soil
  195. B) green plants would lose their energy source
  196. C) herbivores must eat decomposers
  197. D) decomposers release oxygen needed by the other organisms
  198. The source of energy for an ecosystem is
  199. A) nutrients in the soil
  200. B) water
  201. C) sunlight
  202. D) recycled energy from decomposers
  203. Fungi are primarily
  204. A) producers
  205. B) herbivores
  206. C) carnivores
  207. D) decomposers
  208. If deer are placed on an island with a constant, renewable food supply and a stable biological

community with predators, the growth curve after several decades would be described as a

  1. A) J-curve [exponential]
  2. B) S-curve [logistic]
  3. Professor Hotsun is studying a desert ecosystem containing fig trees, fig-eating rats, rateating snakes, and snake-eating lizards. If the fig trees produce one million kcal of energy, about how much energy would be contained in the population ofrat-eating snakes?
  4. A) 100,000 kcal
  5. B) 50,000 kcal
  6. C) 10,000 kcal
  7. D) 1000 kcal
  8. Colorblindness (Xb) is X-linked and recessive. Blondie is normal, and not a carrier, but her husband Dagwood is colorblind. If their daughter Cookie marries a colorblind man, what phenotypes can Cookie expect in her sons?
  9. A) all normal
  10. B) all colorblind
  11. C) 1/2 colorblind, 1/2 normal
  12. John has type A blood. John’s father has type O blood. Mary has type B blood. Mary’s mother is type A. The possible blood types of John and Mary’s daughters are
  13. A) AB only
  14. B) A or AB only
  15. C) B or AB only
  16. D) A, B, AB or O

Here is a list of mRNA codons and their amino acids. Use this information to answer #49 and #50:

AAU – asparagine AUC – isoleucine CAA – glutamine CAU – histidine

CGU – arginine CUU – leucine GAA – glutamate GAU – aspartate

GCA – alanine GGC – glycine UGU – cysteine

  1. The sequence of amino acids of Arginine-Alanine-Leucine would be coded by this sequence of bases on mRNA :
  6. A sequence of bases on a DNA strand of GAATTACGT would code for this amino acid sequence:
  7. A) Leucine-Asparagine-Alanine
  8. B) Aspartate-Glutamate-Alanine
  9. C) Glutamine-Cysteine- Histidine
  10. D) Leucine-Glutamate-Histidine



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